A debtor’s personal residence is a natural target of his or her creditors. Some states (Florida, in particular) provide special protection for your home against claims of creditors. Currently, Florida’s protection is so strong that some debtors have re-located to Florida solely to take advantage of this protection. Texas also provides a very strong homestead exemption. Ohio, however, currently provides little statutory protection. Until very recently, the Ohio homestead exemption was only $5,000 -- one of the lowest in the country. The exemption was recently raised to $20,200 (Ohio Revised Code Section 2329.66). Furthermore, Ohio law does not permit residents of Ohio to utilize the federal bankruptcy exemption, which would be a higher amount. Even in bankruptcy, therefore, Ohio residents have only a $20,200 homestead exemption. There are huge variations in state homestead exemptions. Texas and Florida are essentially unlimited; Nevada is currently $550,000. Other states -- like Ohio -- offer very limited exemptions.
The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 has significantly curtailed the previous ability to move from state to state to take advantage of a better homestead exemption. Essentially, the federal law provides that the state homestead exemption is limited to $125,000 if the debtor moved within 3 years and 4 months of the bankruptcy and in certain other limited circumstances. This limitation applies only in bankruptcy, however, and not to a creditor’s action outside of bankruptcy.
In several states, debtors may benefit from re-titling their residence as “tenants by the entireties.” Ohio, however, does not currently recognize this form of home ownership. While “joint” ownership is sometimes used to avoid probate, it is not helpful from an asset protection standpoint. Creditors of either joint tenant may be able to reach the entire property to satisfy debts of the joint tenant.
In light of the fact that Ohio provides such a low statutory homestead exemption, we look at alternative means of protection for our Ohio clients. We can sometimes gain some protection for clients through certain trusts. Not all trusts provide creditor protection. Certain trusts, however, may provide some protection for a residence. We also frequently advise re-titling the house in the name of the spouse who is least likely to face future litigation.
Issues relating to your personal residence cannot be analyzed in isolation. They should always be considered in connection with an over-all asset protection strategy.